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    1. 電源濾波器的作用及原理

      2016-07-04  來自: 上海上恒電子有限公司 瀏覽次數:2877

       

       電源濾波器就是對電源線中特定頻率的頻點或該頻點以外的頻率進行有效濾除的電器設備。電源濾波器的功能就是通過在電源線中接入電源濾波器,得到一個特定頻率的電源信號,或消除一個特定頻率后的電源信號。

         利用電源濾波器的這個特性,可以將通過電源濾波器后的一個方波群或復合噪波,變成一個特定頻率的正弦波。

      工作原理    

      電源濾波器是一種無源雙向網絡,它的一端是電源,另一端是負載。電源濾波器內部電路 電源濾波器的原理就是一種——阻抗適配網絡:電源濾波器輸入、輸出側與電源和負載側的阻抗失配越大,對電磁干擾的衰減就越有效。 性能測試  漏電流性能測試    泄漏電流是指在250VAC的電壓下,相線和中線與濾波器外殼(地線)間流過的電流。它主要取決于接地電容(共模電容)的取值。較大的共模電容CY可以提高插入損耗,但卻造成較大的漏電流。若CX電容器的耐壓性能欠佳,在出現峰值浪涌電壓時,可能被擊穿。它的擊穿雖然不危及人身安全,但會使濾波器功能喪失或性能下降。CY電容器除了滿足接地漏電流的要求外,還在電氣和機械性能方面具有足夠的安全余量,避免在極端惡劣的環境條件下出現擊穿短路現象。故線一地之間的耐壓性能對保護人身安全有重要意義,一旦設備或裝置的絕緣保護措施失效,可能導致人員傷亡 性能評定    EMI電源濾波器在使用時考慮最多的是額定電壓及電流值、耐壓性能、漏電流三項,而其中最主要的評定性能為濾波器的插入損耗性能。   EMI電源濾波器對干擾噪聲的抑制能力用插入損耗I.L.(Insertion Loss)來衡量。插入損耗定義為:沒有濾波器接入時,從噪聲源傳輸到負載的功率P1和接入濾波器后,從噪聲源傳輸到負載的功率P2之比,用dB(分貝)表示。性能評定 頻域測試 

      1.插入損耗的標準測試   在標準測量法中規定,在50Ω~75之間的任一阻值的系統內測試它的插入損耗特性。  

      2 .插入損耗的加載測試   在EMI濾波器產品中,由于使用不合適的材料,共模扼流圈不可能保證完全對稱會導致磁環的飽和,同時寄插入損耗的標準測試 生差模電感也可能產生磁環的飽和,使得濾波器的實際使用情況與廠家提供數據 有很大差距,因此必須對濾波器采用加載測試。  

      3 .EMI濾波器的時域測試   一般地,對于EMI電源濾波器我們只關心它的常規性能及頻域抑制性能。

      升沿和下降沿有明顯的變化。頻域上,經過濾波后,方波信號的高頻分量被濾除。對于通過同一濾波插針,方波的頻率越高,其諧波信號被濾波插針衰減的將會越大,則方波的波形上升及下降時間將會越長。同樣,對于同樣的頻率波形,通過濾波插針,其濾波容值越大,方波上升時間趨緩的程度越大。  

      4. EMI濾波器插損自動測試系統設計   近年來,隨著EMC測試的內容日趨復雜,測試工作量急劇增加,對測試設備在功能、性能、測試速度、測試準確度等方面的要求也日益提高。在這種情況下,傳統的人工測試已經很難滿足要求,再加上現在的國家標準(GB)和國家軍用標準(GJB)均要求電磁兼容的檢測必須自動進行,并且對數據后處理有嚴格的要求。因此,發展EMC自動測試成為必然之路。本文所建立的自動測試系統使用了虛擬儀器技術,基于信號源一頻譜儀對EMI電源濾波器進行插損測試的系統。

      1、電源濾波器的不能存在電磁耦合路徑    

       ①、電源輸入線過長;

       ②、電源濾波器的輸入線和輸出線靠的過近。   此兩種都是不正確的安裝方式,問題的本質在于,濾波器的輸入端電線和它的輸出端電線之間存在有明顯的電磁耦合路徑。這樣一來,存在于濾波器某一端的EMI信號會逃脫濾波器對它的抑制,不經過濾波器的衰減而直接耦合到濾波器的另一端去。因此濾波器輸入與輸出先需有效分開。

      2、不能將線纜困扎在一塊   一般來說,在電子設備或系統內安裝電源濾波器時要注意的是,在捆扎設備電纜時,千萬不能把濾波器(電源)端和(負載)端的電線捆扎在一起,因為這無疑加劇了濾波器輸入輸出端之間的電磁耦合,嚴重破壞了濾波器和設備屏蔽對EMI 信號的抑制能力。  

      3、要盡量避免使用長接地線    電源濾波器輸出端連接變頻器或電機的接線長度不超過30厘米為宜。   因為過長的接地線意味著大大增加接地電感和電阻,它會嚴重破壞濾波器的共模抑制能力。較好方法是,用金屬螺釘與星形彈簧墊圈把濾波器的屏蔽牢牢地固定在設備電源入口處的機殼上。  4、 電源濾波器輸入線、輸出線必須拉開距離   電源濾波器輸入線、輸出線必須拉開距離,切忌并行,以免降低濾波器效能;

      5、電源濾波器外殼與機箱殼必須良好接觸    變頻器專用濾波器金屬殼與機箱殼必須保證良好面接觸,并將接地線接好;

      6、電源濾波器的連接線宜選用雙絞線   電源濾波器的輸入、輸出連接線以選用屏蔽雙絞線為佳,它可有效消除部分高頻干擾信號。


      關鍵詞: 電源濾波器的作用及原理           

      上海上恒電子有限公司,專營 單相濾波器 三相三線濾波器 三相四線濾波器 直流濾波器 軍品濾波器 電抗器 正弦波濾波器 等業務,有意向的客戶請咨詢我們,聯系電話:021-52845231.

      備案號:滬ICP備16046008號

      CopyRight ? 版權所有: 上海上恒電子有限公司 技術支持:魔站 網站地圖 XML


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